Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest revision of the Internet Protocol (IP) and the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion. This article will help you in understanding IPv6 and its associated terminologies along with appropriate references and examples.
First the birth of this IP protocol started the modern Internet era, this IP protocol is also what we use today. Early in the 90s when the Internet began to be used by the public and no longer a military project. It has see that the IPv4 address of 4 billion will not be enough for all devices connected to the Internet later.
An IPv6 address is hexadecimal and consists of 128 bits. For each of the major addressing and routing methodologies, various address formats are recognized by logically dividing the 128 address bits into bit groups. And IPv6 address also establishing rules for associating the values of these bit groups with special addressing features.
Basic knowledge to understand ipv6 address on this case;
A 128-bit IPv6 address, written with hexadecimal characters.
1 hexadecimal character is equal to 4 binary bits, and every 16 bits separated by colons. Adjacent zeros can be summarized using two colons (: :), For example
As above, the 128-bit IPv6 is divide as 2. The original 64 bits are the network bits, the last 64 bits for the host. They use of 64 bits for this host is set in RFC 5375. So in IPv6, there are no subnets smaller than /64. For example, in one network there are only 10 hosts, the network is still used /64.
There is one exception to the use of networks that are smaller than /64 for inter-router links. Links that only have two routers are recommended /127. The use of /127 for inter-router links is written in RFC 6164.
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